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The operator splitting method

The idea of the ALI or operator splitting method is to reduce the eigenvalues of the amplification matrix in the iteration scheme [19] by introducing an approximate $\Lambda$-operator (ALO) $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$and to split $\Lambda$ according to

and rewrite Eq. 4 as

This relation can be written as [22]

where ${\bar J_{\rm fs}}=\Lambda{S_{\rm old}}$. Equation 8 is solved to get the new values of ${\bar J}$ which is then used to compute the new source function for the next iteration cycle.

Mathematically, the ALI method belongs to the same family of iterative methods as the Jacobi or the Gauss-Seidel methods [28]. These methods have the general form

for the iterative solution of a linear system Ax=b where the system matrix A is split according to A=M-N. In the case of the ALI method we have $M=1-\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi(1-\epsilon)$ and, accordingly, $N=(\Lambda-\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi)(1-\epsilon)$ for the system matrix $A=1-\Lambda(1-\epsilon)$. The convergence of the iterations depends on the spectral radius, $\rho(G)$, of the iteration matrix G=M-1N. For convergence the condition $\rho(G)<1$ must be fulfilled, this puts a restriction on the choice of $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$. In general, the iterations will converge faster for a smaller spectral radius. To achieve a significant improvement compared to the $\Lambda$-iteration, the operator $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$ is constructed so that the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix G are much smaller than unity, resulting in swift convergence. Using parts of the exact $\Lambda$ matrix (e.g., its diagonal or a tri-diagonal form) will optimally reduce the eigenvalues of the G. The calculation and the structure of $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$ should be simple in order to make the construction of the linear system in Eq. 8 fast. For example, the choice $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi=\Lambda$ is best in view of the convergence rate (it is equivalent to a direct solution by matrix inversion) but the explicit construction of $\Lambda$ is more time consuming than the construction of a simpler $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$. The solution of the system Eq. 8 in terms of linear algebra, using modern linear algebra packages such as, e.g., LAPACK, is so fast that its CPU time can be neglected for the small number of variables encountered in 1D problems (typically the number of discrete shells is about 50). However, for 2D or 3D problems the size of $\Lambda$ gets very large due to the much larger number of grid points as compared to the 1D case. Matrix inversions, which are necessary to solve Eq. 8 directly, therefore become extremely time consuming. This makes the direct solution of Eq. 8 more CPU intensive even for $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$'s of moderate bandwidth, except for the trivial case of a diagonal $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$. Different methods like modified conjugate gradient methods [29] may be effective for these 2D or 3D problems.

The CPU time required for the solution of the RTE using the ALI method depends on several factors: (a) the time required for a formal solution and the computation of ${\bar J_{\rm fs}}$, (b) the time needed to construct $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$, (c) the time required for the solution of Eq. 8, and (d) the number of iterations required for convergence to the prescribed accuracy. Points (a), (b) and (c) depend mostly on the number of discrete shells, and can be assumed to be fixed for any given configuration. However, the number of iterations required to convergence depends strongly on the bandwidth of $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$.This indicates, that there is an optimum bandwidth of the $\ifmmode{\Lambda^*}\else\hbox{$\Lambda^*$}\fi$-operator which will result in the shortest possible CPU time needed for the solution of the RTE, which we will discuss below.

next up previous
Next: Computation of Up: Radiative transfer in expanding Previous: Radiative transfer in expanding
Peter H. Hauschildt